I would assume that, in the meanwhile, your question either has been answered or is no longer relevant. But maybe there are other people having the same questions. But the tool can make it more or less easy for you. For instance, it can slow down or speed up the flow of creativity. However, in the case of the RF, you get optimal support. Harnessing its power and versatility as described in the posts , you can create maximum reusability and maintainability of your domain functions, object mappings and other low-level resources.
But YOU need to identify and the implement the proper abstraction layers and apply all of the other relevant design patters. The RF facilitates creating and subsequently using the resources in those layers. As to the compatibility issue: the RF integrates perfectly within Jenkins. The reporting facilities are good out-of-the-box and are also extensible in a very easy and efficient manner. I am new to the network automation using python…..
May i know how exactly RF is useful and how and where should i initiate to learn that from the first step. Well, for answers to both questions, you could read my various posts and, of course, consult the abundance of RF documentation and other resources such as RF user groups and Slack available on the web. Hi Michael, I am a newbie for RF Framework but I have been working on Selenium for the past so many years using various different frameworks, including Customized Cucumber and my own coded framework using Java. I am trying to learn the advantages of RF.
Also, it will be of great help if you could make me understand how different it is from Cucumber Framework. S: I am trying to figure out framework for a completely new product. Hence, exploring the options available. Apologies for lengthy question but at least I see a similarity between us in writing lengthy posts. However, for our discussion, the important thing to understand is that scripting can , but most certainly does not have to, be employed.
So you can use the proprietary RF scripting language to code reusable test functions keywords , but you can also write these functions directly in code. For coding you can use various languages, such as Python, Java,. Net, Ruby, et alia see my post on the Remote Library Interface or the official RF documentation for an overview of all supported languages. With RF it extremely simple to create libraries of low-level domain functions in code!
The above applies to automation with Selenium Webdriver as well. The keywords in these libraries can then be used in the same way in the RF test cases as the functions that were created in scripting. You can use both alongside each other in the same test case or even statement and it would be fully transparent to the test case author that one function has been scripted and the other has been coded. Well, I really would like to be brief on this, as an effective framework comparison is quite laborious. RF as a generic testing framework is very, very powerful, flexible and versatile see my other posts on the RF.
Demonstrable more so than Cucumber or any other, similar framework for that matter. But which framework to use, very much depends on what the context of your automation effort is, in terms of amongst others its high-level goals and scope I have written about this elsewhere in more detail. Hi, is there a way to re-run failed test cases as and when they fail in Robot? But no use. Though the re-run happens, it is not anyway close to how it should work? I myself have not yet encountered a situation in which such a mechanism was required. So, apart from the —rerunfailed option and the listeners, I have no clue.
The keyword to run you would then have to write yourself and would have to contain some small and simple logic to re-run a current test case upon failure. This should be easy to do. And second, the only way you can run your test-cases in an explicit order is by adding numerical conventions to that file or folder.
Seriously, how bad is this?? If not that u need to either separate all your test cases and run them individually. Seriously, lame. There are indeed a number of ways in which to deviate from the default execution sequentiality. Some of which you mention. I think the important question here is, why you need to specify the order of execution. As a matter of principle, you should be able to run any random subset of your test set i.
I will not go into the how and why of test case independence here, but suffice it to say that there should be a good reason to deviate from this principle. Hi Michael, I have used robot framework for web UI automation in my last experience and found it awesome. Some of my queries are: 1. Any support email ids. To raise technical concerns. I can add a python function as keyword, But suppose that function calls internally 5 more functions. Will the logs. Is there any debugging feature provided by any Id for Robot framework i need for web automation only. Yes, it most certainly will.
The latest version of RF supports Python 3. Do you have any specific problems or questions regarding RF with Python 3? Suppose i created my own library, is there any tool which will generate docs for my library can be a html file? Thus, you might have found answers to your questions in the meanwhile. However, for other people that might come here searching for answers to these questions, I would like to reply nevertheless. As of , the Selenium2Library has been redesigned and now also supports Python 3.
I have used this tool myself and it works great. I like the reporting part of robot framework but creating test cases is double work. You write the code in python and then you figure how to write the robot part. I would much prefer it if was with out the sentence part and you could just plug in your code. And at the highest abstraction level, you will always separate your test designs from the reusable, lower-level test functions and other such artifacts.
I have written in my blog posts about how and why to do this as have lots of other people of course. Of course, in other regards it matters a LOT. Secondly, you CAN write your functions etc in Python or other languages OR in script OR in a combination thereof which option you choose, is context-dependent.
Thirdly, you write your test cases in simple natural language sentences. They should not contain code, whether it be Python or whichever language you use or RF script. Again, this should be case regardless the framework you use e. It can test against the Win-GUI through an external library.
Robot Framework User Guide
For most parts named-only arguments work the same way as named arguments. The main difference is that libraries implemented with Python 2 using the static library API do not support this syntax. As an example of using the named-only arguments with user keywords , here is a variation of the Run Program in the above free named argument examples that only supports configuring shell :.
A totally different approach to specify arguments is embedding them into keyword names. This syntax is supported by both test library keywords and user keywords. A test case fails if any of the keyword it uses fails. Normally this means that execution of that test case is stopped, possible test teardown is executed, and then execution continues from the next test case. It is also possible to use special continuable failures if stopping test execution is not desired. The error message assigned to a failed test case is got directly from the failed keyword.
Often the error message is created by the keyword itself, but some keywords allow configuring them. In some circumstances, for example when continuable failures are used, a test case can fail multiple times. In that case the final error message is got by combining the individual errors.
Very long error messages are automatically cut from the middle to keep reports easier to read, but full error messages are always visible in log files as messages of the failed keywords. By default error messages are normal text, but they can contain HTML formatting. This marker will be removed from the final error message shown in reports and logs. Using HTML in a custom message is shown in the second example below.
The test case name comes directly from the Test Case table: it is exactly what is entered into the test case column. Test cases in one test suite should have unique names. It is available whenever a test is being executed, including all user keywords, as well as the test setup and the test teardown. The [Documentation] setting allows you to set a free documentation for a test case.
That text is shown in the command line output, as well as the resulting test logs and test reports. It is possible to use simple HTML formatting in documentation and variables can be used to make the documentation dynamic. If documentation is split into multiple columns, cells in one row are concatenated together with spaces. This is mainly be useful when using the HTML format and columns are narrow.
If documentation is split into multiple rows , the created documentation lines themselves are concatenated using newlines. Newlines are not added if a line already ends with a newline or an escaping backslash. It is important that test cases have clear and descriptive names, and in that case they normally do not need any documentation. If the logic of the test case needs documenting, it is often a sign that keywords in the test case need better names and they are to be enhanced, instead of adding extra documentation. Finally, metadata, such as the environment and user information in the last example above, is often better specified using tags.
Using tags in Robot Framework is a simple, yet powerful mechanism for classifying test cases. Tags are free text and they can be used at least for the following purposes:. In this section it is only explained how to set tags for test cases, and different ways to do it are listed below. These approaches can naturally be used together. Tags are free text, but they are normalized so that they are converted to lowercase and all spaces are removed.
If a test case gets the same tag several times, other occurrences than the first one are removed. Tags can be created using variables, assuming that those variables exist. Users are generally free to use whatever tags that work in their context. There are, however, certain tags that have a predefined meaning for Robot Framework itself, and using them for other purposes can have unexpected results. All special tags Robot Framework has and will have in the future have the robot: prefix. To avoid problems, users should thus not use any tag with this prefixes unless actually activating the special functionality.
At the time of writing, the only special tags are robot:exit , that is automatically added to tests when stopping test execution gracefully , and robot:no-dry-run , that can be used to disable the dry run mode. More usages are likely to be added in the future.
Robot Framework has similar test setup and teardown functionality as many other test automation frameworks. In short, a test setup is something that is executed before a test case, and a test teardown is executed after a test case. In Robot Framework setups and teardowns are just normal keywords with possible arguments. Setup and teardown are always a single keyword. If they need to take care of multiple separate tasks, it is possible to create higher-level user keywords for that purpose. An alternative solution is executing multiple keywords using the BuiltIn keyword Run Keywords.
The test teardown is special in two ways. First of all, it is executed also when a test case fails, so it can be used for clean-up activities that must be done regardless of the test case status. In addition, all the keywords in the teardown are also executed even if one of them fails. This continue on failure functionality can be used also with normal keywords, but inside teardowns it is on by default.
The easiest way to specify a setup or a teardown for test cases in a test case file is using the Test Setup and Test Teardown settings in the Setting table. Individual test cases can also have their own setup or teardown.
They are defined with the [Setup] or [Teardown] settings in the test case table and they override possible Test Setup and Test Teardown settings. Having no keyword after a [Setup] or [Teardown] setting means having no setup or teardown. The name of the keyword to be executed as a setup or a teardown can be a variable. This facilitates having different setups or teardowns in different environments by giving the keyword name as a variable from the command line.
Test suites can have a setup and teardown of their own. A suite setup is executed before any test cases or sub test suites in that test suite, and similarly a suite teardown is executed after them. Test templates convert normal keyword-driven test cases into data-driven tests. Whereas the body of a keyword-driven test case is constructed from keywords and their possible arguments, test cases with template contain only the arguments for the template keyword. Template keywords can accept both normal positional and named arguments, as well as arguments embedded to the keyword name.
Unlike with other settings, it is not possible to define a template using a variable. How a keyword accepting normal positional arguments can be used as a template is illustrated by the following example test cases. These two tests are functionally fully identical. As the example illustrates, it is possible to specify the template for an individual test case using the [Template] setting.
An alternative approach is using the Test Template setting in the Setting table, in which case the template is applied for all test cases in that test case file. The [Template] setting overrides the possible template set in the Setting table, and an empty value for [Template] means that the test has no template even when Test Template is used.
It is also possible to use value NONE to indicate that a test has no template. If a templated test case has multiple data rows in its body, the template is applied for all the rows one by one. This means that the same keyword is executed multiple times, once with data on each row. Templated tests are also special so that all the rounds are executed even if one or more of them fails. It is possible to use this kind of continue on failure mode with normal tests too, but with the templated tests the mode is on automatically.
Using arguments with default values or varargs , as well as using named arguments and free named arguments , work with templates exactly like they work otherwise. Using variables in arguments is also supported normally. Templates support a variation of the embedded argument syntax. With templates this syntax works so that if the template keyword has variables in its name, they are considered placeholders for arguments and replaced with the actual arguments used with the template.
The resulting keyword is then used without positional arguments. This is best illustrated with an example:. When embedded arguments are used with templates, the number of arguments in the template keyword name must match the number of arguments it is used with. The argument names do not need to match the arguments of the original keyword, though, and it is also possible to use different arguments altogether:. The main benefit of using embedded arguments with templates is that argument names are specified explicitly. When using normal arguments, the same effect can be achieved by naming the columns that contain arguments.
This is illustrated by the data-driven style example in the next section. If templates are used with for loops , the template is applied for all the steps inside the loop. The continue on failure mode is in use also in this case, which means that all the steps are executed with all the looped elements even if there are failures.
There are several different ways in which test cases may be written. Test cases that describe some kind of workflow may be written either in keyword-driven or behavior-driven style. Data-driven style can be used to test the same workflow with varying input data. Workflow tests, such as the Valid Login test described earlier , are constructed from several keywords and their possible arguments.
Their normal structure is that first the system is taken into the initial state Open Login Page in the Valid Login example , then something is done to the system Input Name , Input Password , Submit Credentials , and finally it is verified that the system behaved as expected Welcome Page Should Be Open. Another style to write test cases is the data-driven approach where test cases use only one higher-level keyword, often created as a user keyword , that hides the actual test workflow. It would be possible to repeat the same keyword with every test, but the test template functionality allows specifying the keyword to use only once.
Naming columns like in the example above makes tests easier to understand. This is possible because on the header row other cells except the first one are ignored. When using test templates , all the rounds in a test are executed even if there are failures, so there is no real functional difference between these two styles.
In the above example separate combinations are named so it is easier to see what they test, but having potentially large number of these tests may mess-up statistics. Which style to use depends on the context and personal preferences. It is also possible to write test cases as requirements that also non-technical project stakeholders must understand.
When writing test cases in this style, the initial state is usually expressed with a keyword starting with word Given , the actions are described with keyword starting with When and the expectations with a keyword starting with Then. Keyword starting with And or But may be used if a step has more than one action. Prefixes Given , When , Then , And and But are dropped when matching keywords are searched, if no match with the full name is found. This works for both user keywords and library keywords. For example, Given login page is open in the above example can be implemented as user keyword either with or without the word Given.
Ignoring prefixes also allows using the same keyword with different prefixes. For example Welcome page should be open could also used as And welcome page should be open. When writing concrete examples it is useful to be able pass actual data to keyword implementations. User keywords support this by allowing embedding arguments into keyword name. In addition to test automation, Robot Framework can be used for other automation purposes, including robotic process automation RPA.
It has been always been possible, bu Robot Framework 3. For most parts creating tasks works the same way as creating tests and the only real difference is in terminology. Tasks can also be organized into suites exactly like test cases. Tasks are created based on the available keywords exactly like test cases, and the task syntax is in general identical to the test case syntax.
The main difference is that tasks are created in task sections or tables instead of test case sections:. Settings that can be used in the task section are exactly the same as in the test case section. Robot Framework test cases are created in test case files, which can be organized into directories.
These files and directories create a hierarchical test suite structure. Same concepts apply also when creating tasks , but the terminology differs. Robot Framework test cases are created using test case tables in test case files. Such a file automatically creates a test suite from all the test cases it contains. There is no upper limit for how many test cases there can be, but it is recommended to have less than ten, unless the data-driven approach is used, where one test case consists of only one high-level keyword.
All setting names can optionally include a colon at the end, for example Documentation:. This can make reading the settings easier especially when using the plain text format. SuiteSetup or extra spaces added e. Test case files can be organized into directories, and these directories create higher-level test suites.
A test suite created from a directory cannot have any test cases directly, but it contains other test suites with test cases, instead. These directories can then be placed into other directories creating an even higher-level suite. There are no limits for the structure, so test cases can be organized as needed. When a test directory is executed, the files and directories it contains are processed recursively as follows:. If a file or directory that is processed does not contain any test cases, it is silently ignored a message is written to the syslog and the processing continues.
A test suite created from a directory can have similar settings as a suite created from a test case file. Because a directory alone cannot have that kind of information, it must be placed into a special test suite initialization file. The name format is borrowed from Python, where files named in this manner denote that a directory is a module. Initialization files have the same structure and syntax as test case files, except that they cannot have test case tables and not all settings are supported. Variables and keywords created or imported in initialization files are not available in the lower level test suites.
If you need to share variables or keywords, you can put them into resource files that can be imported both by initialization and test case files. The main usage for initialization files is specifying test suite related settings similarly as in test case files , but setting some test case related settings is also possible. How to use different settings in the initialization files is explained below. The test suite name is constructed from the file or directory name. The name is created so that the extension is ignored, possible underscores are replaced with spaces, and names fully in lower case are title cased.
The file or directory name can contain a prefix to control the execution order of the suites. The prefix is separated from the base name by two underscores and, when constructing the actual test suite name, both the prefix and underscores are removed. The documentation for a test suite is set using the Documentation setting in the Setting table. It can be used in test case files or, with higher-level suites, in test suite initialization files. Test suite documentation has exactly the same characteristics regarding to where it is shown and how it can be created as test case documentation.
Both the name and documentation of the top-level test suite can be overridden in test execution. This can be done with the command line options --name and --doc , respectively, as explained in section Setting metadata. Test suites can also have other metadata than the documentation. This metadata is defined in the Setting table using the Metadata setting.
Metadata set in this manner is shown in test reports and logs. The name and value for the metadata are located in the columns following Metadata. The value is handled similarly as documentation, which means that it can be split into several cells joined together with spaces or into several rows joined together with newlines , simple HTML formatting works and even variables can be used. For top-level test suites, it is possible to set metadata also with the --metadata command line option.
This is discussed in more detail in section Setting metadata.
Not only test cases but also test suites can have a setup and a teardown. A suite setup is executed before running any of the suite's test cases or child test suites, and a test teardown is executed after them. All test suites can have a setup and a teardown; with suites created from a directory they must be specified in a test suite initialization file.
Similarly as with test cases, a suite setup and teardown are keywords that may take arguments. Keyword names and possible arguments are located in the columns after the setting name. If a suite setup fails, all test cases in it and its child test suites are immediately assigned a fail status and they are not actually executed.
This makes suite setups ideal for checking preconditions that must be met before running test cases is possible. A suite teardown is normally used for cleaning up after all the test cases have been executed. It is executed even if the setup of the same suite fails. If the suite teardown fails, all test cases in the suite are marked failed, regardless of their original execution status. Note that all the keywords in suite teardowns are executed even if one of them fails. Test libraries contain those lowest-level keywords, often called library keywords , which actually interact with the system under test.
All test cases always use keywords from some library, often through higher-level user keywords. This section explains how to take test libraries into use and how to use the keywords they provide. Creating test libraries is described in a separate section. Test libraries are typically imported using the Library setting, but it is also possible to use the Import Library keyword.
Test libraries are normally imported using the Library setting in the Setting table and having the library name in the subsequent column. Unlike most of the other data, the library name is both case- and space-sensitive. If a library is in a package, the full name including the package name must be used.
In those cases where the library needs arguments, they are listed in the columns after the library name. It is possible to use default values, variable number of arguments, and named arguments in test library imports similarly as with arguments to keywords. Both the library name and arguments can be set using variables. It is possible to import test libraries in test case files , resource files and test suite initialization files.
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In all these cases, all the keywords in the imported library are available in that file. With resource files, those keywords are also available in other files using them. Another possibility to take a test library into use is using the keyword Import Library from the BuiltIn library. This keyword takes the library name and possible arguments similarly as the Library setting. Keywords from the imported library are available in the test suite where the Import Library keyword was used. This approach is useful in cases where the library is not available when the test execution starts and only some other keywords make it available.
Libraries to import can be specified either by using the library name or the path to the library. These approaches work the same way regardless is the library imported using the Library setting or the Import Library keyword. The most common way to specify a test library to import is using its name, like it has been done in all the examples in this section. In these cases Robot Framework tries to find the class or module implementing the library from the module search path.
Libraries that are installed somehow ought to be in the module search path automatically, but with other libraries the search path may need to be configured separately. The biggest benefit of this approach is that when the module search path has been configured, often using a custom start-up script , normal users do not need to think where libraries actually are installed. The drawback is that getting your own, possible very simple, libraries into the search path may require some additional configuration.
Another mechanism for specifying the library to import is using a path to it in the file system. This path is considered relative to the directory where current test data file is situated similarly as paths to resource and variable files. The main benefit of this approach is that there is no need to configure the module search path. If the library is a file, the path to it must contain extension. For Python libraries the extension is naturally. With absolute paths the trailing slash is optional. Following examples demonstrate these different usages.
A limitation of this approach is that libraries implemented as Python classes must be in a module with the same name as the class. The library name is shown in test logs before keyword names, and if multiple keywords have the same name, they must be used so that the keyword name is prefixed with the library name. The library name is got normally from the module or class name implementing it, but there are some situations where changing it is desirable:. The basic syntax for specifying the new name is having the text WITH NAME case-sensitive after the library name and then having the new name in the next cell.
The specified name is shown in logs and must be used in the test data when using keywords' full name LibraryName. Keyword Name. The following example illustrates how the same library can be imported several times with different arguments:. Setting a custom name to a test library works both when importing a library in the Setting table and when using the Import Library keyword. Some test libraries are distributed with Robot Framework and these libraries are called standard libraries. The BuiltIn library is special, because it is taken into use automatically and thus its keywords are always available.
Other standard libraries need to be imported in the same way as any other libraries, but there is no need to install them. In addition to the normal standard libraries listed above, there is also Remote library that is totally different than the other standard libraries. It does not have any keywords of its own but it works as a proxy between Robot Framework and actual test library implementations. These libraries can be running on other machines than the core framework and can even be implemented using languages not supported by Robot Framework natively.
See separate Remote library interface section for more information about this concept. Any test library that is not one of the standard libraries is, by definition, an external library. The Robot Framework open source community has implemented several generic libraries, such as SeleniumLibrary and SwingLibrary , which are not packaged with the core framework. Generic and custom libraries can obviously also be implemented by teams using Robot Framework.
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See Creating test libraries section for more information about that topic. Different external libraries can have a totally different mechanism for installing them and taking them into use. Sometimes they may also require some other dependencies to be installed separately. All libraries should have clear installation and usage documentation and they should preferably automate the installation process. Variables are an integral feature of Robot Framework, and they can be used in most places in test data.
Most commonly, they are used in arguments for keywords in test case tables and keyword tables, but also all settings allow variables in their values. A normal keyword name cannot be specified with a variable, but the BuiltIn keyword Run Keyword can be used to get the same effect. If a non-existent variable is used in the test data, the keyword using it fails. Different ways how to create variables are discussed in the subsequent sections. Robot Framework variables, similarly as keywords, are case-insensitive, and also spaces and underscores are ignored.
Much more importantly, though, case should be used consistently. Unlike in some programming languages where similar variable syntax is used, curly braces are always mandatory. Variable names can basically have any characters between the curly braces. However, using only alphabetic characters from a to z, numbers, underscore and space is recommended, and it is even a requirement for using the extended variable syntax.
When this syntax is used, the variable name is replaced with its value as-is. Most of the time variable values are strings, but variables can contain any object, including numbers, lists, dictionaries, or even custom objects. The example below illustrates the usage of scalar variables.
The example below demonstrates the difference between having a variable in alone or with other content. Finally, when this test data is executed, different keywords receive the arguments as explained below:. Converting variables to Unicode obviously fails if the variable cannot be represented as Unicode.
A workaround is creating a variable that contains the whole value and using it alone in the cell e. In this case individual list items are passed in as arguments separately. This is easiest to explain with an example. Robot Framework stores its own variables in one internal storage and allows using them as scalars, lists or dictionaries. Using a variable as a list requires its value to be a Python list or list-like object.
Robot Framework does not allow strings to be used as lists, but other iterable objects such as tuples or dictionaries are accepted. Prior to Robot Framework 2.
This caused lot of confusion when there accidentally was a scalar variable and a list variable with same name but different value. List variables can be used only with some of the settings. They can be used in arguments to imported libraries and variable files, but library and variable file names themselves cannot be list variables. Also with setups and teardowns list variable can not be used as the name of the keyword, but can be used in arguments.
With tag related settings they can be used freely. Using scalar variables is possible in those places where list variables are not supported. As discussed above, a variable containing a list can be used as a list variable to pass list items to a keyword as individual arguments.
In practice this means that individual items of the dictionary are passed as named arguments to the keyword. It is possible to use dictionary variables with other arguments, including other dictionary variables. Because named argument syntax requires positional arguments to be before named argument, dictionaries can only be followed by named arguments or other dictionaries. Dictionary variables cannot generally be used with settings. The only exception are imports, setups and teardowns where dictionaries can be used as arguments.
Accessing items is an old feature, but prior to Robot Framework 3. The old syntax still works in Robot Framework 3. Indices start from zero, negative indices can be used to access items from the end, and trying to access an item with too large an index causes an error. Indices are automatically converted to integers, and it is also possible to use variables as indices. List items accessed in this manner can be used similarly as scalar variables.
With this syntax you do not get a single item but a slice of the original list. Same way as with Python you can specify the start index, the end index, and the step:. The slice syntax is new in Robot Framework 3.
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Keys are considered to be strings, but non-strings keys can be used as variables. Dictionary values accessed in this manner can be used similarly as scalar variables. See Creating dictionary variables for more details about this syntax. They are limited to string values. Environment variables set in the operating system before the test execution are available during it, and it is possible to create new ones with the keyword Set Environment Variable or delete existing ones with the keyword Delete Environment Variable , both available in the OperatingSystem library.
Because environment variables are global, environment variables set in one test case can be used in other test cases executed after it. However, changes to environment variables are not effective after the test execution. When running tests with Jython, it is possible to access Java system properties using same syntax as environment variables. If an environment variable and a system property with same name exist, the environment variable will be used. The most common source for variables are Variable tables in test case files and resource files.
Variable tables are convenient, because they allow creating variables in the same place as the rest of the test data, and the needed syntax is very simple. Their main disadvantages are that values are always strings and they cannot be created dynamically. If either of these is a problem, variable files can be used instead. The simplest possible variable assignment is setting a string into a scalar variable.
If the second column is empty, an empty string is set as a value. Also an already defined variable can be used in the value. If a scalar variable has a long value, it can be split to multiple columns and rows. Creating list variables is as easy as creating scalar variables. Again, the variable name is in the first column of the Variable table and values in the subsequent columns. A list variable can have any number of values, starting from zero, and if many values are needed, they can be split into several rows.
Dictionary variables can be created in the variable table similarly as list variables. If there are multiple items with same name, the last value has precedence. Dictionary variables have two extra properties compared to normal Python dictionaries. This only works if the key is a valid attribute name and does not match any normal attribute Python dictionaries have. This eases working with nested data structures. Another special property of dictionary variables is that they are ordered.
This means that if these dictionaries are iterated, their items always come in the order they are defined. This can be useful if dictionaries are used as list variables with for loops or otherwise. When a dictionary is used as a list variable, the actual value contains dictionary keys. Variable files are the most powerful mechanism for creating different kind of variables. It is possible to assign variables to any object using them, and they also enable creating variables dynamically.
The variable file syntax and taking variable files into use is explained in section Resource and variable files. Variables can be set from the command line either individually with the --variable -v option or using a variable file with the --variablefile -V option. Variables set from the command line are globally available for all executed test data files, and they also override possible variables with the same names in the Variable table and in variable files imported in the test data. Several variables can be set by using this option several times.
Only scalar variables can be set using this syntax and they can only get string values. What variables actually are created depends on what variables there are in the referenced variable file. If both variable files and individual variables are given from the command line, the latter have higher priority.
Return values from keywords can also be set into variables. This allows communication between different keywords even in different test libraries. Variables set in this manner are otherwise similar to any other variables, but they are available only in the local scope where they are created. Thus it is not possible, for example, to set a variable like this in one test case and use it in another.
This is because, in general, automated test cases should not depend on each other, and accidentally setting a variable that is used elsewhere could cause hard-to-debug errors. If there is a genuine need for setting a variable in one test case and using it in another, it is possible to use BuiltIn keywords as explained in the next section. Any value returned by a keyword can be assigned to a scalar variable.
As illustrated by the example below, the required syntax is very simple:. Creating local variables like this works both in test case and user keyword level. Notice that although a value is assigned to a scalar variable, it can be used as a list variable if it has a list-like value and as a dictionary variable if it has a dictionary-like value.
If a keyword returns a list or any list-like object, it is possible to assign it to a list variable :. Because all Robot Framework variables are stored in the same namespace, there is not much difference between assigning a value to a scalar variable or a list variable. This can be seen by comparing the last two examples above. For exaple from here: But as RobotFramework-Ride 1. Anna Anna 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 12 12 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.
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